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Department of Anthropology
Durham University
Dawson Building
South Road
Durham DH1 3LE

Tel: +44 (0) 191 334 1601
Fax: +44 (0) 191 334 1614
[email protected]

Last updated
15th January 2021



74.  Parker, E.J., Koyama, N.F. & Hill, R.A. (2021) Habitat selection of an endangered primate, the samango monkey (Cercopithecus albogularis schwarzi): integrating scales to prioritise habitat for wildlife management Habitat selection of samango monkeys across scales. Ecology and Evolution 

73.  Stewart, P.S., Hill, R.A. Stephens, P.A. Whittingham, M.J. & Dawson, W. (2021) Impacts of invasive plants on animal behaviour. Ecology Letters 24: 891-907.

72.  Williams, K.S., Williams, S.T., Welch, R.J., Marneweck, C.J., Mann, G.T., Pitman, R.T., Whittington-Jones, G., Balme, G.A., Parker, D.M. & Hill, R.A. (2021) Assumptions about fence permeability influence density estimates for brown hyaenas across South Africa. Scientific Reports 11: 620.

71.  Walton, B.J., Findlay, L.J. & Hill, R.A. (2021) Insights into short and long-term crop-foraging strategies in a chacma baboon (Papio ursinus) from GPS and accelerometer data. Ecology & Evolution 11: 990–1001.

70.  LaBarge, L.R., Allan, A.T.L., Berman C.M., Hill, R.A. & Margulis, S.W. (2021) Extent of threat detection depends on predator type and behavioral context in wild samango groups. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 75: 13.

69.  Williams, K.S., Pitman, R.T., Mann, G.T., Whittington-Jones, G., Comley, J., Williams, S.T., Hill, R.A., Balme, G.A. & Parker, D.M. (2021) A broad-scale assessment of the biological and anthropogenic factors affecting brown hyena occupancy. Oryx 55: 216-226

68.  Findlay, L.J. & Hill, R.A. (2020) Field guarding as a crop protection method: Preliminary implications for improving field guarding. Human–Wildlife Interactions 14: 519–530.

67.  Findlay, L.J. & Hill, R.A. (2020) Baboon and vervet crop foraging behaviors on a commercial South African farm: Preliminary implications for mitigation strategies. Human–Wildlife Interactions 14: 505–518.

66.  Stringer, S.D., Hill, R.A., Swanepoel, L., Dalrymple, S.E., Linden, B. & Koyama, N.F. (2020) Interpreting the role of frugivores in seed germination potential depends on study design: A case study from Soutpansberg Mountain, South Africa. Acta Oecologia 106: 103584

65.  Allan, A.T.L., Bailey, A. & Hill, R.A. (2020) Habituation is not neutral or equal: Individual differences in tolerance suggest an overlooked personality trait. Science Advances 6: eaaz0870.

64.  LaBarge, L.R., Allan, A.T.L., Berman C.M., Margulis, S.W. & Hill, R.A. (2020) Reactive and pre-emptive spatial cohesion in a social primate. Animal Behaviour 163: 115-126.

63.  Parker, E.J., Hill, R.A., Allan, A.T.L., Howlett, C. & Koyama, N.F. (2020) Evaluating predictors of ranging patterns in the endangered samango monkey (Cercopithecus albogularis schwarzi). Integrative Zoology 15: 385-400.

62.  Green, S., Rees, J., Stephens, P. Hill, R.A & Giordano, A. (2020) Innovations in Camera Trapping Technology and Approaches: Applications for Citizen Science. Animals 10:132

61.  Stringer, S.D., Hill, R.A., Swanepoel, L. & Koyama, N.F. (2020) Adapting methodology used on captive subjects for estimating gut passage time in wild monkeys. Folia Primatologica 9: 417-432

60.  LaBarge, L.R., Hill, R.A., Berman C.M., Margulis, S.W. & Allan, A.T.L. (2020) Anthropogenic influences on primate antipredator behaviour and implications for research and conservation. American Journal of Primatology 82: e23087. 

59.  Ayers, A.M., Allan, A.T.L., Howlett, C., Tordiffe, A.S.W., Williams, K.S., Williams, S.T. & Hill, R.A., (2019) Illuminating movement: Nocturnal activity patterns in chacma baboons (Papio ursinus). Journal of Zoology. (pdf)

58.   Hsing, P.-Y., Coghill, L., Ryder, J., Austin, M., Dooley, S., Ellison, A., Fenwick, C., Garland, M., Humphrey, P., Proudlock, H., Robson, A., Steer, C., Turnbull, L., Kent, V.T., Bradley, S., Hill, R.A., Ascroft, R. & Stephens, P. (2020) Citizen scientists: School students conducting and communicating ecological research — experiences of a school-university partnership. School Science Review 101:67-74

57.  Faure, P.B., Holmes, N.J., H Watson, L.H. & Hill, R.A. (2019) Brown hyaena (Parahyaena brunnea) diet composition from Zingela Game Reserve, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Africa Zoology 54:119-124 (pdf)

56.  de Raad, A.L.  & Hill, R.A. (2019) Topological spatial representation in wild chacma baboons (Papio ursinus). Animal Cognition 22: 397-412. (pdf)

55.  Baauw, A.H., Heyne, H., Williams, K.S., Hill, R.A. Heitkönig I.M.A. & Williams, S.T. (2019) First records of Hyalomma rufipes and Ixodes neitzi (Acari: Ixodidae) found on large carnivores in South Africa.  Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 10: 128-131. (pdf)

54.  Williams, K.S., Williams, S.T., Fitzgerald, L.E., Sheppard, E.C. & Hill, R.A. (2018) Brown hyaena and leopard diets on private land in the Soutpansberg Mountains, South Africa. Africa Journal of Ecology 56: 1021–1027. (pdf)

53.  Hsing, P.-Y., Bradley, S., Kent, V.T., Hill, R.A., Smith, G.C., Whittingham, M.J., Cokill, M.J., Crawley, D, MammalWeb volunteers & Stephens, P. (2018) Economical crowdsourcing for camera trap image classification. Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation 4: 361-374. (pdf)

52.  Allan, A.T.L. & Hill, R.A. (2018) What have we been looking at?  A call for consistency in studies of primate vigilance. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 165(S65): 4-22 (pdf; cover pdf)

51.  Atickem, A., Simeneh, G., Bekele, A., Mekonnen, T., Sillero-Zubiri, C., Hill, R.A. & Stenseth, N.C. (2017) Livestock predation and the diet of African wolf in the Guassa mountains of Ethiopia. African Journal of Ecology 55: 632-639.(pdf)

50.  Pitman, R.T., Fattebert, J., Williams, S.T., Williams, K.S., Hill, R.A., Hunter, L., Slotow, R. & Balme, G.A. (2017) Conservation costs of game ranching. Conservation Letters 10:403-413 (pdf)

49.  Pitman, R.T., Fattebert, J., Williams, S.T., Williams, K.S., Hill, R.A., Hunter, L., Robinson, H., Power, J., Swanepoel, L., Slotow, R. & Balme, G.A.  (2017) Cats, connectivity and conservation: incorporating datasets and integrating scales for wildlife management. Journal of Applied Ecology 54: 1687-1698 (pdf)

48.  Howlett, C. & Hill, R.A.  (2017) Can zoo enclosures inform exclosure design for crop-raiding primates? African Journal of Ecology (pdf)

47.  Nowak, K., Wimberger, K., Richards, S.A.,  Hill, R.A. , & le Roux, A. (2017) Monkeys manage foraging risk in a seasonal, heterogeneous landscape in Amathole Mountains, South Africa. International Journal of Primatology 38:194-206 (pdf)

46.  Wimberger, K., Nowak, K. & Hill, R.A.  (2017) Reliance on exotic plants by two groups of endangered samango monkeys,  Cercopithecus albogularis labiatus, at their southern range limit. International Journal of Primatology 38:151-171 (pdf)

45.  Williams, S.T., Williams, K.S., Lewis, B. & Hill, R.A. (2017) Population dynamics and threats to an apex predator outside protected areas: Implications for carnivore management. Royal Society Open Science 4: 161090. 

44.   Chase Grey, J.N. Bell, S.  & Hill, R.A.  (2017) Leopard diets and landowner perceptions of human wildlife conflict in the Soutpansberg Mountains, South Africa. Journal for Nature Conservation  37: 56-65(pdf)

43.  Nowak, K., Richards, S.A., le Roux, A. & Hill, R.A.   (2016) Does live-capture affect habituated mammals’ landscape of fear?: A case study using samango monkeys. Journal of Mammalogy 97: 1461-1468 (pdf)
42.  Williams, S.T., Williams, K.S., Joubert, C.J. & Hill, R.A. (2016) The impact of land reform on the status of large carnivores. PeerJ 4:e1537 (pdf)  

41.  Constant, N.L, Bell, S. & Hill, R.A. (2015) The impacts, characterisation and management of human-leopard conflict in a multi-use land system in South Africa. Biodiversity and Conservation  24:2967-2989 (pdf); supplementary material (pdf)

40.  Wiedemann, D., Burt, D.M., Hill, R.A.  & Barton, R.A. (2015) Red clothing increases perceived dominance, aggression and anger. Biology Letters 11:20150166. (pdf)

39.  Howlett, C., Setchell, J.M., Hill, R.A.  & Barton, R.A. (2015) The 2D:4D digit ratio and social behaviour in wild female chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) in relation to dominance, aggression, interest in infants, affiliation and heritability. Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology 69:61–74. (pdf)

38.  Coleman, B.T. & Hill, R.A. (2014) Biogeographic variation in the diet and behaviour of Cercopithecus mitis. Folia Primatologica 85: 319-334 (pdf)

37.  Nowak, K., le Roux, A., Richards, S.A., Scheijen, C. & Hill, R.A. (2014) Human observers modulate arboreal monkeys’ perceived landscape of fear. Behavioral Ecology 25:1199–1204 (pdf) Supplementary mmaterial (pdf)

36.  Lawson, J.F., James, C., Jannson, A.-U.C, Koyama, N.F. & Hill, R.A. (2014) A comparison of heterosexual and homosexual mating preferences in personal advertisements. Evolution & Human Behaviour  35:418-414.(pdf)

35.  Coleman, B.T. & Hill, R.A. (2014) Living in a landscape of fear: the impact of predation, resource availability and habitat structure on primate range use. Animal Behaviour 88:165-173. (pdf)

34.  Chase Grey, J.N., Kent, V.T. & Hill, R.A. (2013). Evidence of a high density population of harvested leopards in a montane environment. PLOS ONE 8(12): e82832. (pdf)

33.  Kent, V.T. & Hill, R.A. (2013) The importance of farmland for the conservation of brown hyaena, Parahyaena brunnea. Oryx 47: 431-440 (pdf)

32.  Smith, R.K., Ryan, E., Morley, E. & Hill, R.A. (2011) Resolving management conflicts: could agricultural land provide the answer for an endangered species in a habitat classified as a World Heritage Site? Environmental Conservation 38: 325-333 (pdf)

31.  Hill, R.A. (2009) Is isolation the major genetic concern for endangered equids? Animal Conservation 12: 518-519 (pdf)

30.  Willems, E.P. & Hill, R.A. (2009) A critical assessment of two species distribution models taking vervet      monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) as a case study. Journal of Biogeography36: 2300-2312 (pdf)

29.  Willems, E.P., Barton, R.A. & Hill, R.A. (2009) Remotely sensed productivity, home range selection and local range use by an omnivorous primate. Behavioral Ecology, 20: 985-992 (pdf)

28.  Willems, E.P. & Hill, R.A. (2009) Predator-specific landscapes of fear and resource distribution: effects on spatial range use. Ecology, 90: 546-555 (pdf)

27.  Hill, R.A., Bentley, R.A. & Dunbar, R.I.M. (2008) Network scaling reveals consistent fractal pattern in      hierarchical mammalian societies. Biology Letters, 4: 748-751 (pdf)  Supplementary information (pdf);     supplementary data sources (pdf)

26.  Smith, R.K., Marais, A., Chadwick, P., Lloyd, P.H.& Hill, R.A. (2008) Monitoring and management of the endangered Cape mountain zebra Equus zebra zebra in the Western Cape, South Africa. African Journal of Ecology, 46: 207-213 (pdf)

25.  Attrill, M.J., Gresty, K.A., Hill, R.A. & Barton, R.A. (2008) Red shirt colour is associated with long-term team success in English football. Journal of Sports Science, 26: 577-582 (pdf)

24.  Little, A.C & Hill, R.A. (2007) Attribution to red suggests special role in dominance signalling. Journal of Cultural and Evolutionary Psychology, 5: 87–94 (pdf)

23.  Sellers, W.I., Hill, R.A. & Logan B. (2007) Simulating group decision making in baboons using agent-based modelling. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London, 362: 1699-1710 (pdf)

22.  Hill, R.A. (2006) Thermal constraints on activity scheduling and habitat choice in baboons. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 129: 242-249 (pdf)

21.  Hill, R.A. (2006) Why be diurnal? Or, why not be cathemeral?  Folia Primatologica, 77: 72-86 (pdf)

20.  Hill, R.A., Donovan, S. & Koyama, N.F. (2005) Female sexual advertisement reflects resource availability in 20th Century UK society. Human Nature, 16: 266-277 (pdf)

19.  Barton, R.A. & Hill, R.A. (2005) Sporting contests: Seeing red? Putting sportswear in context (reply). Nature, 437: E10-E11 (pdf)

18.  Hill, R.A. & Barton, R.A. (2005) Red enhances human performance in contests.  Nature 435: 293 (pdf) Supplementary methods (pdf); supplementary analyses (pdf); supplementary data (xls)

17.  Zhou, W.-X., Sornette, D., Hill, R.A. & Dunbar, R.I.M. (2005) Discrete hierarchical organisation of social group sizes. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London B, 272: 439-444 (pdf) [Reviewed in Nature, 433:702 (pdf)]

16.  Koyama, N.F., McGain, A. & Hill, R.A. (2004) Feminist attitudes influence female mate choice patterns in contemporary Western society. Evolution and Human Behaviour, 25: 327-335(pdf)

15.  Hill, R.A., Barrett, L., Gaynor, D., Weingrill, T., Dixon, P., Payne, H. & Henzi, S.P. (2004) Day length variation and seasonal analyses of behaviour. South African Journal of Wildlife Research, 34: 39-44(pdf)

14.  Hill, R.A., Weingrill, T., Barrett, L., & Henzi, S.P. (2004) Indices of environmental temperatures for primates in open habitats. Primates, 45: 7-13 (pdf)

13.  Henzi, S.P., Barrett, L., Gaynor, D., Greeff, J., Weingrill, T. & Hill, R.A. (2003) Effect of resource competition on the long-term allocation of grooming by female baboons: evaluating Seyfarth's model. Animal Behaviour, 66: 931-938 (pdf)

12.  Hill, R.A. & Dunbar, R.I.M. (2003) Social network size in humans. Human Nature, 14:53-72 (pdf)[Reviewed as Feature Article in New Scientist, 27th December 2003, pp. 60-61]

11.  Weingrill, T., Lycett, J.E., Barrett, L., Hill, R.A. & Henzi, S.P. (2003) Male consortship behaviour in chacma baboons: The role of demographic factors and female conceptive probabilities. Behaviour, 140: 405-427 (pdf)

10.  Rae, T.C., Hill, R.A., Hamada, Y., & Koppe, T. (2003) Clinal variation of maxillary sinus volume in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). American Journal of Primatology, 59: 153-158 (pdf)

9.   Hill, R.A., Barrett, L., Gaynor, D., Weingrill, T., Dixon, P., Payne, H. & Henzi, S.P. (2003) Day length, latitude and behavioural (in)flexibility in baboons. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 53: 278-286(pdf)

8.   Hill, R.A. & Dunbar, R.I.M. (2002) Climatic determinants of diet and foraging behaviour in baboons. Evolutionary Ecology, 16: 579-593 (pdf)

7.   Hill, R.A., Lycett, J.E. & Dunbar, R.I.M. (2000) Ecological and social determinants of birth intervals in baboons. Behavioural Ecology, 11: 560-564 (pdf)

6.   Henzi, S.P., Barrett, L., Weingrill, T., Dixon, P & Hill, R.A. (2000) Ruths amid the alien corn: males and the translocation of female baboons. South African Journal of Science, 96: 61-62 (pdf)

5.   Barrett, L., Henzi, S.P., Weingrill, T., Lycett, J.E. & Hill, R.A. (2000) Female baboons give as good as they get but do not raise the stakes. Animal Behaviour, 59: 763-770 (pdf)

4.   Barrett, L., Henzi, S.P., Weingrill, T., Lycett, J.E. & Hill, R.A. (1999) The market value of grooming depends on power differences among female baboons. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London B, 266: 665-670 (pdf)

3.   Hill, R.A. (1999) Size dependent tortoise predation by baboons at De Hoop Nature Reserve, South Africa. South African Journal of Science, 95: 123-124 (pdf)

2.   Hill, R.A. & Lee, P.C. (1998) Predation pressure as an influence on group size in Cercopithecoid primates: implications for social structure. Journal of Zoology, 245: 447-456 (pdf)

1.   Hill, R.A. & Dunbar, R.I.M. (1998) An evaluation of the roles of predation rate and predation risk as selective pressures on primate grouping behaviour. Behaviour, 135: 411-430 (pdf)


14. Hill, R.A. (2020) Reflections on ‘Babooning’. In: Burt, T. & Thompson, D. (eds.) Curious about Nature: A Passion for Fieldwork. Pp. 218-222. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

13. Hill, R.A. (in press) Foraging in a landscape of fear. In: Lambert, J.E. & Rothman, J. (eds.) Primate Diet and Nutrition: Needing, Finding and Using Food. 

12. Hill, R.A. (2019) From 150 to 3: Dunbar’s numbers. In: Shankland, D. (ed.) Dunbar’s Number. pp. 21-37. Occasional Paper No. 45 of the Royal Anthropological Institute, Sean Kingston Publishing, Canon Pyon.

11. Hill, R.A. (2017) Dunbar, R.I.M. In: Fuentes, A. (ed.) International Encyclopaedia of Primatology. John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey.

10. Turner, T., Hill, R.A., Coetzer, W.G. and Patterson, L. (2016). A Conservation Assessment of Chlorocebus pygerythrus. In: Child, M.F., Raimondo, D., Do Linh San, E., Roxburgh L., & Davies-Mostert, H. (eds) The Red List of Mammals of South Africa, Swaziland and Lesotho. South African National Biodiversity Institute and Endangered Wildlife Trust, South Africa.

9.    Nowak, K., Hill, R.A., Wimberger, K. & le Roux, A. (2016) Risk-taking in samango monkeys in relation to human observers at two sites in South Africa. In: Waller, M. (ed.) Ethnoprimatology: Primate Conservation in the 21st Century. pp 301-314. Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects, Springer.

8.    Meier, M.A., Hill, R.A., Elliot, A.J. & Barton, R.A. (2015) Color in achievement contexts in humans. In: Elliot, A.J.& Fairchild, M.D. (eds.) Handbook of color psychology. pp. 569-584. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 

7.  Wiedemann, D., Barton, R.A. & Hill, R.A. (2012) Evolutionary approaches to sport. In: Roberts, S.C. (ed.) Applied Evolutionary Psychology. pp. 290-307.  Oxford University Press, Oxford.

6.  Hill, R.A., Sellers, W.I., Logan B. & Zapala, J. (2012) An agent-based model of group decision-making in baboons. In: Seth, A., Prescott, T. & Bryson, J. (eds.) Modelling Natural Action Selection. pp. 454-476. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

5.   Hill, R.A. (2008) Non-human primate approaches to landscapes. In: David B. & Thomas, J. (eds.) Handbook of Landscape Archaeology. pp. 95-101.  Left Coast Press, California.

4.   Hill, R.A. & Weingrill T. (2007) Predation risk and habitat use in chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus). In: Gursky, S. & Nekaris K.A.I. (eds.) Primates and their predators. pp. 339-354. Kluwer Academic Publishers (Developments in Primatology Series), New York.(pdf)

3.   Sellers, W.I., Hill, R.A. & Logan B. (2005) Biorealistic simulation of baboon foraging using agent-based modelling. In: Bryson, J.J., Prescott T.J. & Seth, A.K. (eds.) Modelling natural action selection: Proceedings of an international workshop. pp. 127-134. AISB Press, Brighton (pdf)

2.   Hill, R.A. (2005) Daylength seasonality and the thermal environment. In: Brockman, D.K. & van Schaik, C.P. (eds.) Primate seasonality: implications for human evolution. pp. 197-213.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

1.   Hill, R.A. & Cowlishaw, G.C. (2002) Foraging female baboons exhibit similar patterns of antipredator vigilance across two populations. In: Miller, L.E. (ed.) Eat or be eaten: predator sensitive foraging among primates. pp. 187-204.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge(pdf)


Hill, R.A. (1999) Ecological and demographic determinants of time budgets in baboons: 
    Implications for cross-populational models of baboon socioecology. PhD thesis, University of 
    Liverpool (download)