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Department of Anthropology
Durham University
Dawson Building
South Road
Durham DH1 3LE

Tel: +44 (0) 191 334 1601
Fax: +44 (0) 191 334 1614
[email protected]

Last updated
15th January 2021


Our research is structured around three key themes:

(i) To assess the role of mountainous regions in biodiversity conservation

(ii) The behavioural ecology of predator-prey interactions focussing on diurnal primates and their predators as a model system

(iii) Evaluating the nature and extent of human-wildlife conflict within the Soutpansberg Mountains

(i) Conservation significance of montane environments

Protected areas are the cornerstone of local, regional, and global strategies for biodiversity conservation, although the value and importance of natural habitats outside of formally protected areas is increasingly recognised. As human populations continue to rise and human activities convert and degrade lowland habitats, mountainous regions are increasingly important to species conservation. Mountainous areas are often noted for high concentrations of endemic species of animals and plants and thus represent an important focus for conservation research. Our project is based at the Lajuma Research Centre within the Soutpansberg Mountain Range, an area recognized nationally as a centre of endemism and biodiversity. The mountains fall within the Vhembe UNESCO Biosphere Reserve and form part of the North-Eastern Escarpment Bio-region, a priority area for conservation research highlighted by the South African National Biodiversity Institute. Our research is assessing the ecology, biodiversity status and conservation potential of this montane environment to significantly increase our understanding of the importance of mountainous regions in conservation planning.

(ii) Predator-prey interactions

Predation is a key selective force driving animal evolution. Almost all animal species are engaged in some form of predator-prey interaction and thus how animals manage the risk of predation is a central issue in behavioural ecology. Predation imposes two costs on prey individuals: the catastrophic fitness costs of mortality resulting from successful predation and the indirect costs of employing behaviours to reduce mortality risks. These non-lethal interactions between predator and prey appear to impact on almost every aspect of prey decision-making (from foraging to mate choice). Predation avoidance is widely accepted as the primary advantage for group-living in social vertebrates with individuals assumed to experience reduced per captia risk as group size increases through the benefits of dilution, confusion, early warning and coordinated defence. While theoretical models have supported such anti-predator benefits for animals living in groups, empirical evidence is more limited. Similarly, while group size variation is a ubiquitous characteristic of populations of social animals, the causes of this variation have remained a long-standing problem in behavioural ecology, particularly in species that form permanent social groups. Thus while studies of predator-prey interactions have made considerable progress in recent decades, there are still significant gaps in our understanding and substantial scope for future work. Our study aims to fill some of these gaps through focussing on the interactions between predators and their dirunal primate prey. Recent evidence suggests that to understand the impact of predation on different mammalian prey species it is necessary to account for the pressure exerted by all of the major predators as well as the interactions of individual predator-prey combinations. Our study system is perfectly suited to these requirements.

(iii) Human-wildlife conflict

Predators are an important part of every natural community and play a critical role in ecosystem functioning. Therefore, if conservation strategies are to be successful in preserving natural ecosystems, we need to explain the dynamic interactions that occur between predators and prey and how these shape animal populations. However, a second facet of mammalian conservation is to understand how animals co-exist in human-dominated landscapes. Large carnivores can place significant costs on human populations by inflicting damage that threatens local livelihoods through livestock depredation and predation on managed wildlife and hunting and retaliatory killings of carnivores in response to perceived livestock depredation are common. While predation on domestic livestock is often cited as the most common cause of human-wildlife conflict, crop damage by wild animals is also a significant issue, often causing farmers considerable economic loss and frustration, and undermining local conservation efforts . Primates are often cited as a greater problem than the major predators within the Soutpansberg Moutains. Our project aims to understand the dynamic nature of human-wildlife conflict in our study area. Through assessing actual levels of livestock predation alongside stakeholder perceptions and the viability of our predator populations under current hunting pressure alongside studies of the diurnal primate species and the factors leading to crop-raiding and human-wildlife conflict we aim to develop viable management strategies for mammalian conservation in the region.


Williams, K.S., Williams, S.T., Welch, R.J., Marneweck, C.J., Mann, G.T., Pitman, R.T., Whittington-Jones, G., Balme, G.A., Parker, D.M. & Hill, R.A. (2021) Assumptions about fence permeability influence density estimates for brown hyaenas across South Africa. Scientific Reports 11: 620

Walton, B.J., Findlay, L.J. & Hill, R.A. (2021) Insights into short and long-term crop-foraging strategies in a chacma baboon (Papio ursinus) from GPS and accelerometer data. Ecology & Evolution 11: 990–1001.

LaBarge, L.R., Allan, A.T.L., Berman C.M., Hill, R.A. & Margulis, S.W. (2021) Extent of threat detection depends on predator type and behavioral context in wild samango groups. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 75: 13.

Williams, K.S., Pitman, R.T., Mann, G.T., Whittington-Jones, G., Comley, J., Williams, S.T., Hill, R.A., Balme, G.A. & Parker, D.M. (2020) A broad-scale assessment of the biological and anthropogenic factors affecting brown hyena occupancy. Oryx

Findlay, L.J. & Hill, R.A. (2020) Field guarding as a crop protection method: Preliminary implications for improving field guarding. Human–Wildlife Interactions 14: 519–530.

Findlay, L.J. & Hill, R.A. (2020) Baboon and vervet crop foraging behaviors on a commercial South African farm: Preliminary implications for mitigation strategies. Human–Wildlife Interactions 14: 505–518.

Stringer, S.D., Hill, R.A., Swanepoel, L., Dalrymple, S.E., Linden, B. & Koyama, N.F. (2020) Interpreting the role of frugivores in seed germination potential depends on study design: A case study from Soutpansberg Mountain, South Africa. Acta Oecologia 106: 103584

Allan, A.T.L., Bailey, A. & Hill, R.A. (2020) Habituation is not neutral or equal: Individual differences in tolerance suggest an overlooked personality trait. Science Advances 6: eaaz0870.

LaBarge, L.R., Allan, A.T.L., Berman C.M., Margulis, S.W. & Hill, R.A. (2020) Reactive and pre-emptive spatial cohesion in a social primate. Animal Behaviour 163: 115-126.

Parker, E.J., Hill, R.A., Allan, A.T.L., Howlett, C. & Koyama, N.F. (2020) Evaluating predictors of ranging patterns in the endangered samango monkey (Cercopithecus albogularis schwarzi). Integrative Zoology 15: 385-400.

Stringer, S.D., Hill, R.A., Swanepoel, L. & Koyama, N.F. (2020) Adapting methodology used on captive subjects for estimating gut passage time in wild monkeys. Folia Primatologica 9: 417-432

LaBarge, L.R., Hill, R.A., Berman C.M., Margulis, S.W. & Allan, A.T.L. (2020) Anthropogenic influences on primate antipredator behaviour and implications for research and conservation. American Journal of Primatology 82: e23087.

Ayers, A.M., Allan, A.T.L., Howlett, C., Tordiffe, A.S.W., Williams, K.S., Williams, S.T. & Hill, R.A. (2020) Illuminating movement: Nocturnal activity patterns in chacma baboons (Papio ursinus). Journal of Zoology 310: 287-297

Faure, J.P.B., Holmes, N.J., Watson, L.H. & Hill R.A. (2019) Brown hyaena (Parahyaena brunnea) diet composition from Zingela Game Reserve, Limpopo Province, South Africa. African Zoology 54: 119-124.

de Raad, A.L. & Hill, R.A. (2019) Topological spatial representation in wild chacma baboons (Papio ursinus). Animal Cognition 22: 397-412.

Baauw, A.H., Heyne, H., Williams, K.S., Hill, R.A., Heitkönig I.M.A. & Williams, S.T. (2019) First records of Hyalomma rufipes and Ixodes neitzi (Acari: Ixodidae) found on large carnivores in South Africa. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 10: 128-131.

Williams, K.S., Williams, S.T., Fitzgerald, L.E., Sheppard, E.C. & Hill, R.A. (2018) Brown hyaena and leopard diets on private land in the Soutpansberg Mountains, South Africa. African Journal of Ecology 56: 1021–1027.

Allan, A.T.L. & Hill, R.A. (2018) What have we been looking at? A call for consistency in studies of primate vigilance. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 165(S65): 4-22.

Pitman, R.T., Fattebert, J., Williams, S.T., Williams, K.S., Hill, R.A., Hunter, L., Robinson, H., Power, J., Swanepoel, L., Slotow, R. & Balme, G.A. (2017) Cats, connectivity and conservation: incorporating datasets and integrating scales for wildlife management. Journal of Applied Ecology 54:1687-1689. (pdf)

Howlett, C. & Hill, R.A. (2017) Can zoo enclosures inform exclosure design for crop-raiding primates? African Journal of Ecology 55:727-730. (pdf)

Pitman, R.T., Fattebert, J., Williams, S.T., Williams, K.S., Hill, R.A., Hunter, L., Slotow, R. & Balme, G.A. (2017) The conservation costs of game ranching. Conservation Letters 10: 402-412. (pdf)

Wimberger, K., Nowak, K. & Hill, R.A. (2017) Reliance on exotic plants by two groups of endangered samango monkeys, Cercopithecus albogularis labiatus, at their southern range limit. International Journal of Primatology 38:151-171.

Nowak, K., Wimberger, K., Richards, S.A., Hill, R.A. & le Roux, A. (2017) Monkeys manage foraging risk in a seasonal, heterogeneous landscape in Amathole Mountains, South Africa. International Journal of Primatology 38:194-206.

Williams, S.T., Williams, K.S., Lewis, B. & Hill, R.A. (2017) Population dynamics and threats to an apex predator outside protected areas: Implications for carnivore management. Royal Society Open Science 4: 161090.

Chase Grey, J.N. Bell, S. & Hill, R.A. (2017) Leopard diets and landowner perceptions of human wildlife conflict in the Soutpansberg Mountains, South Africa. Journal for Nature Conservation, 37: 56-65.

Nowak, K., Richards, S.A., le Roux, A. & Hill, R.A. (2016) Does live-capture affect habituated mammals’ landscape of fear?: A case study using samango monkeys. Journal of Mammalogy 97: 1461-1468 (pdf)

Constant, N.L, Bell, S. & Hill, R.A. (2015) The impacts, characterisation and management of human-leopard conflict in a multi-use land system in South Africa. Biodiversity and Conservation 24:2967-2989 (pdf); supplementary material (pdf)

Howlett, C., Setchell, J.M., Hill, R.A. & Barton, R.A. (2015) The 2D:4D digit ratio and social behaviour in wild female chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) in relation to dominance, aggression, interest in infants, affiliation and heritability. Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology 69:61–74 (pdf)

Coleman, B.T. & Hill, R.A. (2014) Biogeographic variation in the diet and behaviour of Cercopithecus mitisFolia Primatologica 85: 319-334 (pdf)

Nowak, K., le Roux, A., Richards, S.A., Scheijen, C. & Hill, R.A. (2014) Human observers modulate arboreal monkeys’ perceived landscape of fear. Behavioral Ecology 25:1199–1204 (pdf) Supplementary mmaterial (pdf)

Coleman, B.T. & Hill, R.A. (2014) Living in a landscape of fear: the impact of predation, resource availability and habitat structure on primate range use. Animal Behaviour 88:165-173. (pdf)

Chase Grey, J.N., Kent, V.T. & Hill, R.A. (2013). Evidence of a high density population of harvested leopards in a montane environment. PLOS ONE 8(12): e82832. (pdf)

Kent, V.T. & Hill, R.A. (2013) The importance of farmland for the conservation of brown hyaena, Parahyaena brunneaOryx47: 431-440 (pdf)

Willems, E.P. & Hill, R.A. (2009) Predator-specific landscapes of fear and resource distribution: effects on spatial range use. Ecology, 90: 546-555 (pdf)

Willems, E.P., Barton, R.A. & Hill, R.A.(2009) Remotely sensed productivity, home range selection and local range use by an omnivorous primate. Behavioral Ecology, 20: 985-992(pdf)

Partners & Funding:

Project Staff:

Dr Russell Hill – Durham University (Project Leader) (email)
Dr Ian Gaigher – Lajuma Research Centre
Oldrich van Schalkwyk – Lajuma Research Centre
Judy van Schalkwyk – EcoSchools/Lajuma Research Centre
Dr Sam Williams – Durham University
Katy Williams – Durham University
Pete Tomlin – Durham University
Leah Findlay – Durham University
Caroline Howlett – Durham University
Leanne Fitzgerald – Durham University
Emily Lake – Durham University

Dr Natasha Constant – Durham University
Dr Vivien Kent – Durham University
Dr Louise de Raad – Durham University
Dr Julia Chase Grey – Durham University
Dr Ben Coleman – Durham University
Rachel Sassoon – Durham University

We are indebted to the volunteers who have helped us on the Primate and Predator Project:
Morgane Costes-Thiere
Shannon Finnegan
Rebecca Melville
Noeks Cilliers
Ciska Scheijen
Gregoire Moutardier
Rachel Stokes
Leanne Fitzgerald
Kasim Rafiq
Tyler Carver
Sophie Kirklin
Chloe Wright
Grace Kennedy
Carson Young
Elliot Lustig
Sophie Tuppen
Mira Kajanus
Nicholas Guillod
Kaja Heising
Katie Dobson
Laura Martínez Íñigo
Kelly Deweese
Alice Marlow
Vicky Goodwin
Griet Nijs
Marion Grohier
Charlotte Arthun
Ellie Darbey
Christoph Eckrich
David Bush
Anna Cura Rodés
Louise Fletcher
Claire Gibson
Suné Rossouw
Mike Heneghan
Becky Spake
Marine Drouilly
Andrew Ladle
Naiara O’Mahony
Alex May
Camilla Ryan